giovedì 9 maggio 2013

The Paleo diet

The paleodieta is a new diet that is actually the world's oldest  diet is the power that primitive man cave followed in the period before the discovery of agriculture occurred about 10,000 years ago. For about two million years the man was a hunter-gatherer and his livelihood was based on what he could find: fruit, berries and honey as a carbohydrate source, the need for fats and proteins was instead covered by seeds, nocispeci, caterpillars, snails, insects, eggs, fish, shellfish, especially the internal organs of animals and the brain more easily digestible than the raw meat of the muscles which, being very rich in connective tissue, were difficult to digest. Only with the use of fire, about 300,000 years ago, is best exploited the muscles of hunted animals could also roast the meat and legumes, made digestible by cooking. Nomads collect the food where it was also feeding on carrion, fishing and hunting also following the movements of animals. This lifestyle has shaped genetic selection for our forerunners for more than a million years, although it appears that the consumption of wild cereals among the populations of hunters and gatherers can be traced back to about 100,000 years ago. Infact, some archaeologists from the University of Calgary have recently found in a cave in Mozambique finds dating back to the beginning of the ice age that demonstrate the working of wild sorghum, the ancestor of the main cereal consumed today for food in sub-Saharan Africa . Then about 10,000 years ago with the discovery of agriculture man became more sedentary and has also started breeding animals, not only to eat them, but also to produce milk and its derivatives. With this change the diet was enriched with carbohydrates (mainly cereals) at the expense of proteins. Cereals, however, are not edible in a raw state and in need of cooking and yet remain more difficult to digest than foods that can be eaten raw. The introduction of cereals and this imbalance in the ratio carbohydrate / protein led to significant consequences in humans. In the Paleolithic the average height was as high as that which is currently achieved only instead of the average height of a Roman legionary soldier was around 165 cm. Life expectancy in the Neolithic had deteriorated since the men were sick more easily. When carbohydrates are in excess compared to the proteins in the organism develop insulin resistance and inflammation, which are the basis of most of the chronic and degenerative diseases. As for the milk must observe that man is the only animal that continues to be nourished with milk after weaning and whether the infant breast milk is the only and the best nourishment it is certainly the other than cow's milk in the percentage composition of macro and micronutrients. With regard to the indispensability of milk and dairy products as a source of calcium (useful for the development of bones and teeth) it must be recognized that the men of the Paleolithic had the bones and strong teeth and no signs of osteoporosis as evidenced by the fossil record. The diet rich in fruits and vegetables created an alkaline environment with protective effects on bone and joint health in general, conversely cereals and dairy products are acid-forming foods that promote so the loss of calcium from bones. The football among other things is present in significant amounts in all of the nuts, raw seeds and vegetables. One of the most common criticisms of this diet is that it is a high protein diet, but in reality it is not so well as carbohydrates were present, not in the form of cereals, but as fruits and vegetables. The percentages were not fixed but could also vary as a result of the availability of food and depending on weather and seasons. Indicates a range in which: carbohydrates ranging from 20% to 40%, protein 20% to 35% fat and from 30% to 60%. So if you ever could be, at times, a high fat diet. We must consider that fats were mostly healthy that is mainly from fish and nuts, and also fats coming from the brain and from game meat were especially rich in Omega 3. The brain for its lipid structure and meat because of animals that fed mainly of fresh grass that is grazed and were housed and fed with forage as in farming. A limitation of this diet is the lack of practicality and organoleptic. It is not that we can easily get used to eating brains, worms and berries, however, we could implement a few simple steps for our health: starting to make many small meals instead of a few and abundant, it also reduces the insulin stimulation, limiting the consumption of cereal 2 times per week. If we are athletes and we need more carbohydrates we can also introduce non-paleolithic food such as potatoes (alkaline) and if we introduce cereal is the best choice to the gluten-free cereals and low-glycemic index such as basmati rice, or the so-called pseudo -grains such as quinoa, amaranth, and buckwheat. Also consume sprouted grains and beans can be helpful. Doing so will greatly reduce the anti-nutrients present, in which case they become real vegetables rich in starch pre-digested and eliminated from the phytic acid, which counteracts the intestinal absorption of various minerals. Obviously should be removed even the coffee, salt and alcohol. Regarding the salt of the body needs sodium should be covered by the one contained in foods. And as for alcohol some argue that perhaps the man of the Paleolithic could occasionally feed on fermented fruit. So for us the possible consumption of alcohol should be only occasional. Even milk and its derivatives shall be eliminated or at least limited and are obviously totally eliminate corn oils and seeds because they are too rich in Omega-6 fatty acids that have an inflammatory effect that is hydrogenated and trans fats found in margarine and many packaged products, which are very dangerous to your health. Unfortunately 55% of the Western diet is based on foods that our ancestors did not know, cereals, dairy products, prepared foods and processed meats, refined flour, sweeteners and hydrogenated fatty acids. The consequence of this new power "enriched" is premature aging with the increase of degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, arthritis, diabetes and obesity, and the latest addition, the "metabolic syndrome ".
Someone could argue that over time there were some genetic modifications that man would have adapted to the consumption of dairy products and cereals, but the prevalence of lactose intolerance to gluten that suggests the opposite. Suffice it to say that the appearance of Homo sapiens about 35,000 years ago, our genetic makeup has changed less than 1%. But if we want to be sure of what in our specific case is now available Nutrigenomics ie the possibility via a DNA test to identify the salivary biochemical nutritional genetic profile of the individual. But that's another story.

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